The Public Budget Cost of Some Monarchies and Republics in Western Europe

“The public budget systems of the eight West European monarchies and the two republics considered use a variety of systems for the civil lists and allocations granted to their heads of state. For this reason it is very difficult to compare the systems with one another”

Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics: A Historical Cross‐Country Perspective 1820‐2000

“Monarchs share one important feature, which is unobtainable by ordinary politicians: their time horizon when considering public action by definition extends to the rest of their life and probably longer, given their concern for their children and perhaps also for the preservation of the monarchy”

Monarchies: What are Kings and Queens For?

“The respect for the monarchy is maintained by the way in which the heads of state, at critical junctures, have carefully managed to play a temporising and refereeing role. This respect has been enhanced by the manner in which political leaders have cultivated the image of the monarch as a reliable king-arbitrator (vide Belgium) or a stable supervisory power above the political parties (vide the Netherlands)”